1513Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century
- January 20 - Christian II becomes King of Denmark and Norway
- March 11 - Leo X elected pope.
- March 27 - Explorer Juan Ponce de Leon sights North America (specifically Florida) for the first time mistaking it for another island. Later, on April 2, he landed somewhere on the east coast of the newly discovered land.
- April - Juan Ponce de Leon and his expedition become the first Europeans known to visit Florida.
- June 6 - Battle of Novara. Swiss troops defeat the French under Louis de la Tremoille, forcing the French to abandon Milan. Duke Massimiliano Sforza is restored.
- August 16 - Battle of the Spurs (or Battle of Guinegate). English troops under Henry VIII defeat a French army under Marshal La Palice.
- August 22 - Capture of Terouenne by Henry VIII of England
- September 9 - Battle of Flodden, King James IV of Scotland defeated and killed by an English army under Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey. James's son the Duke of Rothesay becomes James V, King of Scots.
- September 25 - Balboa "silent upon a peak in Darien" first sees the Pacific Ocean
- October 7 - Battle of La Motta - Spanish troops under Ramon de Cardona defeat the Venetians.
- December - Louis XII makes peace with the Pope and Spain.