1254Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century
- December 2 - Manfred of Sicily defeats army of Pope Innocent IV at Foggia.
- Theodore II Lascaris succeeds John III Ducas Vatatzes as Byzantine emperor.
- Byzantines defeat Bulgarians at Adrianople.
- Alkmaar granted city rights.
- Marco Polo, Venetian merchant and explorer
- May 20 - Conrad IV of Germany
- December 7 - Pope Innocent IV
- John III Ducas Vatatzes, Eastern emperor