1238Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century
- In the Iberian peninsula, James I of Aragon captures the city of Valencia from the Moors; the Moors retreat to Granada.
- Mongols seize Moscow, at that time a small town.
- Peterborough Cathedral is consecrated.
- The Khmers are expelled from Luang Phrabang in Laos.
- The Sukhothai kingdom is founded in Thailand.
- The seat of the patriarchate of Aquileia is transferred to Udine.
- Simon de Montfort marries Eleanor, sister of Henry III of England.
- Henry I of Poland, in battle with the Mongols.